By Murnaghan F. D.
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Only a few atoms a r e ionized immediately after the breakdown, when the small. energy transmitted to the gas is still However, the number of ionized atoms grows as the energy stored in the condenser is dissipated in the discharge gap. Intense ionization is accompanied by a drop in electron temperature and a simultaneous end of the Following r i s e in the atomic and ionic temperatures. By the pulse the electron and atom temperatures are equal. the discharge, a recombination p r o c e s s s e t s in, and energy is dissipated by convection l o s s e s and because of the heat conduction by the g a s .
A vacuum system for spectral analysis of gases. gas cylinders; 10—McLeod gage; 11—auxiliary (surge) vessel; 12— discharge tube; 13—forepump. The system and discharge p r e s s u r e s of the o r d e r of 10 concentrations, as well as 5 tube must be evacuated down to m m Hg. Work with extremely low microanalysis, requires even lower p r e s s u r e s , which are achieved with rotary oil pumps and metal or g l a s s diffusion pumps (mercury or oil v a p o r ) . * Before an oil vapor pump can be used, the discharge tube must be evacuated directly by means of a rotary pump.
In a glow discharge the high e l e c tron temperature produces excitation of lines thatcannotbe excited in an arc or a spark at atmospheric p r e s s u r e . The metastable atoms of considerable are importance in glow discharges (see Section 1). The electron velocity distribution in the positive column generally follows Maxwell's law (see Section 2), although marked deviations from that pattern are occasionally noted under certain conditions. Whereas the excited lines seen in the spectra of the positive column at moderate current densities are predominantly those of atoms, the glow spectra do display s o m e ion lines as well.