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This certain booklet presents an advent to a subject matter whose use has progressively elevated during the last forty years. An replace of Ramon Moore s earlier books at the subject, it presents large insurance of the topic in addition to the historic point of view of 1 of the originators of recent period research.
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For any two humans to be in personal encounter, this seems prerequisite. But this relation need not encompass all the specific utterances of either; we discount much of what we hear as mere prelude, postlude or interlude for something else. However, restricting ourselves to definite propositions at a definite time, we can characterize the degrees of trust or confidence S may have in W in descending order, as follows: (a) S believes2 that W could not have been in error with respect to anything W claims.
III Now we come to the heart of the matter. (1) Can W's testifying that h to S bring it about that S knows that h? Yes, on the following conditions (both sufficient and neces~ary): (1) S believes W (in the double sense of believing that W states what he (W) takes to be true, and of believing that what he(S) takes W to state is true); (2) h is true; (3) W's testifying that h brings it about that h is evident to S; and (4) W knows that h. 8 It is obvious that knowledge is frequently acquired by way of testimony; but it can be acquired either through testimony or incidentally by way of it.
93. 44 See P, p. 126n. ', Australasian Journal of Philosophy 52 (1974), 22-38. 8 9 JAMES F. ROSS TESTIMONIAL EVIDENCE* I Knowledge through what others tell us not only forms a large part of the body of our knowledge but also originates the patterns of appraisal according to which we add beliefs to our present store of knowledge. 1 I do not mean merely that what we add is often accepted from persons who have already contributed to our knowledge; beyond that, we have acquired habits of thought, tendencies to suspect and tendencies to approve both other-person-reports and purported perceptions, from our testimonial relationships with others.