Download Aladdin's Lamp: How Greek Science Came to Europe Through the by John Freely PDF

By John Freely

Aladdin’s Lamp is the attention-grabbing tale of the way historical Greek philosophy and technology begun within the 6th century B.C. and, in the course of the subsequent millennium, unfold around the Greco-Roman international, generating the outstanding discoveries and theories of Thales, Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, Archimedes, Galen, Ptolemy, and so on. John Freely explains how, because the darkish a long time shrouded Europe, students in medieval Baghdad translated the works of those Greek thinkers into Arabic, spreading their rules during the Islamic global from crucial Asia to Spain, with many Muslim scientists, so much significantly Avicenna, Alhazen, and Averroës, including their very own interpretations to the philosophy and technological know-how they'd inherited. Freely is going directly to exhibit how, starting within the 12th century, those texts via Islamic students have been then translated from Arabic into Latin, sparking the emergence of contemporary technology on the sunrise of the Renaissance, which climaxed within the clinical Revolution of the 17th century.

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His sole interest lay in overthrowing the Shah in Iran. Ruhollah Khomeini was born in 1903 to Sayyid Mustafa Musavi, the chief cleric of Khomein, a town 220 miles (350 km) south-west of Tehran. His father was murdered when Ruhollah was a year old. At 19, after he had finished his Persian schooling and religious instruction, he joined a seminary run by Ayatollah Abdul Karim Hairi-Yazdi in Arak. When the latter moved to Qom, a leading Shia center of learning, Khomeini went with him. , report; the sayings and doings of Prophet Muhammad) – ethics and spiritual philosophy.

With the secular Baathists seizing power in 1968, the government imposed strict censorship of religious publications, shut down various Islamic institutions, including a theological college in Najaf, began harassing Shia ulama and, for the first time in Iraqi history, allowed the sale of alcohol in Shia holy places. , The Islamic Call) was formed, clandestinely, with the blessing of the Najaf-based Ayatollah Muhsin al Hakim, the seniormost Shia clergy. As the Baathist regime, dominated by Sunni leaders, tried to interfere with some Shia public rituals and weaken the authority of the religious hierarchy, al Daawa gained ground.

Though not a member of the ruling RCC, he was quite influential, thanks to his close relationship with RCC chairman, Ahmad Bakr, a cousin of Khairallah Talfa. Once he had acquired the RCC membership in late 1969, the Bakr–Hussein duo came to dominate the party as a result mainly of their cunning decimation of their RCC colleagues. Saddam had many opportunities to use his considerable 14 INTRODUCTION conspiratorial abilities, developed during his formative years as an underground Baathist activist, often on the run.

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