By Sigurdur Hafthorsson
The learn is an intensive exam of either textual and archaeological resources for the heritage of the dominion of Aram-Damascus.
This state was once an Aramean nation concentrated round Damascus in Syria from ca. 1100 to 732 B.C. The textual resources for the research are inscriptions in Aramaic, Neo-Assyrian inscriptions, and the previous testomony. In previous reports, archaeology has been little utilized in tracing this nation. This research provides an summary of excavations and surveys within the zone round Damascus and the Golan.
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Extra info for A Passing Power: An Examination of the Sources for the History of Aram-Damascus in the Second Half of the Ninth Century B.C
7~1]ill'. 7:17. l7 [ . 13 55 The a priori most probable case is that the fragments belong to the same inscription when we consider that no other basalt stelae with inscriptions have been found in the area. Further, there is a great similarity of writing and contents. In fact, no compelling evidence forces us to separate the two. 226 Then again, the question of how to fit the pieces together is a more complex one. " 228 As the question of the join has not yet been solved to the satisfaction of most, it is important to see what historical reconstruction can be made from not reading the text as joined, as well as reading it according to Biran & Naveh's join, as most scholars do.
In addition, a seal impression on a jar-handle, the origin of which is unclear, carries the . . l. 309 mscnpt10n l'iilj 1. The Akkadian equivalent of the word, belu, is, like l'iilj in later Aramaic, a very common word used to address anyone in a position higher than the speaker, including gods and kings. 310 In fact, it is probable that every Aramaic speaking person could use this term for anyone in a higher position. Therefore, the fact that Hazael is called l'iilj is no proof of him having had vassals.
90 placed by another edition, that included the first publication of the second stele as well? 93 The stelae are safely dated to the middle of the eighth century. 294 The inscriptions are a treaty of Bar-Ga)yah, king of KTK with Mati 0 el, son of 'Attar-sumki, king of Arpad. The former is the more powerful partner and the latter seems to be some sort of vassal. Aram-Damascus or its kings are not mentioned anywhere in the inscriptions, but of interest for us is the usage of the name Aram. The inscription identifies the partners of the treaty in line 1 on stele I A: 'The treaty of Bar-Ga)yah, the king of KTK, with Mati 0 el, son of 'Attar-sumki, king [of Arpad].