By Andrew McGregor
Egypt has one of many oldest civilizations and proudest nationwide histories on the earth, yet such a lot army histories deal with it as a trifling battleground for different nice imperial powers equivalent to the Ottoman Empire, the French, and the British. In a full of life and stirring narrative, this paintings tells the untold tale of the Egyptian event. It appears on the lives of Egyptian squaddies combating at domestic and overseas, and indicates the jobs these squaddies and their leaders have performed in Middle-Eastern and international heritage for 500 years—especially within the convulsions that experience reworked the Muslim international in the past centuries.Beginning with an outline of Egypt's historical and medieval history, the ebook then explores Ottoman army rule, explaining how a tiny Turkish-speaking minority maintained absolute strength through maintaining army wisdom out of the snatch of local Egyptians. Readers will see how Napoleon's failed Egyptian crusade of 1798 brought the country to Europe yet, extra vital, introduced smooth Western affects to Egypt. in the course of the nineteenth century, new fingers and strategies and the emerging strength of nationalism remodeled Egypt because the empire of the Ottoman Turks slowly decayed. Independence used to be thwarted by means of the British, who took over the rustic within the Eighties to safe hyperlinks to India. but the British cleared the path for independence, retraining and strengthening the Egyptian army to make it the most powerful and so much nationalist strength within the state. ultimately, McGregor's final chapters examine Arab nationalism, and on the Egyptian military within the wars of the past due twentieth century.
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Additional info for A Military History of Modern Egypt: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War
Murad commanded 14,000 Mamluks, Arabs, and Meccans. Mamluk charges on the French squares were ineffectual as usual, as were the mad attacks of the Meccan infantry. Desaix pursued Murad Bey as far as Aswan, but he remained just out of reach. Raping, looting, and killing their way through Egypt, the French soldiers nevertheless displayed a fascinated appreciation of the remarkable monuments of Egypt’s ancient civilization. As they marched and countermarched they eventually ran out of nearly every commodity.
Napoleon ordered his guns to open fire on its revered precincts, killing many of the assembled rebels. Three battalions were sent to clear al-Azhar, led by the imposing figure of General Thomas-Alexandre Dumas, father of 44 A Military History of Modern Egypt the famed writer. Hundreds of prisoners were taken, and the mosque was desecrated in nearly as many ways. The ringleaders and all those found in arms were hustled off to the Citadel, where they were quietly executed and their headless bodies thrown in the Nile.
Ghazi Hassan also closed the slave markets of Istanbul to the Mamluk agents, forcing the Mamluks to look elsewhere for replenishments. The Russian presence in the Caucasus was beginning to make its impact felt by greatly reducing the number of slaves available from this region. Operating from their strongholds in Upper Egypt, Murad and Ibrahim made numerous unsuccessful attempts to drive the admiral out of Egypt. An Ottoman expedition cleared the country of Mamluks as far south as Aswan, but the Beys merely fell back into Nubia and waited for the Ottoman army to return to Cairo.