Download A History of the Crusades, Volume V: The impact of the by Kenneth M. Setton, Norman P. Zacour, Harry W. Hazard PDF

By Kenneth M. Setton, Norman P. Zacour, Harry W. Hazard

The six volumes of A heritage of the Crusades will stand because the definitive historical past of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of knowledge and research of the historical past, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval global.

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Extra info for A History of the Crusades, Volume V: The impact of the crusades on the Near East

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US), p. 276. 39. , p. 269. 40. lbn-JubaJr, Rih/Qh, p. 227. 41. Ibid. 42. JlqA, AI-Pakhrf, pp. 284-285, 287. 14 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES v because of their inordinate influence on the populace. Even discerning individuals like Ibn-Jubair, who criticized the people of Baghdad for their hypocrisy and deceit, exempted from this harsh judgment "their religious leaders, who were versed in the science of tradition, and their preachers, who ceaselessly admonished their followers to do right. •• The general public, consisting of small merchants, artisans, farmers, peasants, nomads, and slaves, shared a common adversity.

There was no real sign of creativity. Causes for this are not far to seek: the community was on the defensive, especially against persistent Shi'ite assaults, which had already become serious enough in the eleventh century to demand special refutation by al-Ghazziili (d. ), whose book AI-Musta~hirl fl faqii'il) ai-Bii(iniyah 61 (On the shameful actions of the BAtinites) represents the classic Sunnite argument and position. It did little, however, to stem the Blltinite movement, the "new dispensation" of which was to be pushed forward with added vigor and violence by al-l;lasan ibn-a~-~bbii1) (d.

I ARAB CULTIJRE IN THE TWELFTH CENTURY 17 no more than perpetuate the restored tradition, adding to it what they had learned of military masonry from the Franks. This influence can be discerned in the citadel of Aleppo, restored by Niir-ad-Din, and the citadel of Cairo, for which Saladin was responsible. The several crusader castles and churches which still dot the length of Syria from Mt. Casius in the north to Gaza in the south, such as the Krak des Chevaliers, Belfort, the church of Notre Dame at Tortosa, and the church of St.

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