By Steven Runciman
Sir Steven Runciman's 3 quantity A background of the Crusades, one of many nice classics of English old writing, is being reissued. This quantity bargains thoroughly with the 1st campaign and the basis of the dominion of Jerusalem. As Runciman says in his preface: 'Whether we regard the Crusades because the such a lot large and such a lot romantic of Christian adventures, or because the final of the barbarian invasions, they shape a critical truth in medieval background. earlier than their inception the centre of our civilization was once put in Byzantium and within the lands of the Arab caliphate. earlier than they pale out the hegemony in civilization had handed to western Europe. Out of this transference glossy heritage was once born.'
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Additional info for A History of the Crusades: Volume 1, The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Pp. 75-81. • Brehier, op. cit. p. 42, assumes that the 'schism' of Michael Cerularius created ill will between the Byzantines and the pilgrims. Riant, Expeditions et Pelerinages des Scandinaves, p. 125, goes so far as to say that the Byzantine authorities deliberately closed the route to Palestine. This is apparently based on his interpretation of Lietbert of Cambrai's experience (see p. 49, and n. 1), Scandinavian Pilgrims showed an almost equal enthusiasm. Scandinavians had long been used to visit Constantinople; and its wealth and wonders greatly impressed them.
Cit. voL n, pp. to-day govenunent in Moslem lands; nor did the Patriarch of Constantinople have any jurisdiction over his eastern colleagues. It was an expression, sentimental but none the less powerful, of the continuance of the idea that Christendom was one and indivisible, and that the Emperor was the symbol of its unity. 1 The heretic Churches had no such lay protector. They were entirely dependent on the goodwill of the Caliph; and their influence and their prestige suffered accordingly. Moreover their heresies had in origin been largely due to· the desire of the orientals to simplify Christian creeds and practices.
Vol. XXIIl, cols. 665-6). Later in the third century we know of a Cappadocian bishop, Alexander, who visited Palestine (Eusebius, The First Pilgrims With the triumph of the Cross the practice grew. The Emperor Constantine was glad to give strength to the religion that he had chosen. His mother, the Empress Helcna, most exalted and most successful of the world's great archaeologists, set out to Palestine, to nncover Calvary and to fmd all the relics of the Passion. The Emperor endorsed her discovery by building there a church, which through all its vicissitudes has remained the chief sanctuary of Christendom, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.