Download A Companion to the History of the Middle East by Youssef M. Choueiri PDF

By Youssef M. Choueiri

Справочник «История Ближнего Востока» предлагает свежий взгляд на многогранную и многослойную историю этого региона, к которому отнесены Иран, Турция, Израиль и Арабский мир.
В его составе – 26 очерков международного коллектива ученых, акцентированных, в основном, на новом и новейшем периоде. В очерках уделено внимание религиозной, социальной, культурной, экономической, политической и военной истории. Затронуты также текущие проблемы, такие как - нефтяной вопрос , урбанизация, роль женщин и права человека.Образцы сканов:

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2. 21 Schacht, Origins; idem, Introduction. ), Hadith: Origins and Developments; Calder, Studies; Juynboll, Muslim Tradition. ), Formative Interpretation. 24 Puin, ‘Observations’. 25 Crone and Hinds, God’s Caliph; article ‘mihna’ in EI2. ); Quranic Studies, ch. 2; idem, ‘Res Ipsa Loquitur’. 27 Cook and Crone, Hagarism; Hoyland, Seeing Islam. , Schoeler, ‘Foundations’; for some of the problems see Conrad, ‘Recovering Lost Texts’. 29 The classic statement of the evolutionary approach is Wellhausen, Reste; in English see No¨ldeke, ‘Arabs (Ancient)’.

Some scholars thought that the rise of monotheism in Arabia could be explained in part by natural evolutionary trends – what they understood as the normal human progress from lower to higher forms of religion. 29 The theory is that Muhammad and many of his fellow Arabs, living in a still mainly _ pagan and polytheistic environment, came into contact with ideas, stories, practices and institutions coming from Judaism, Christianity or other related forms of monotheism. Islam was the outcome – a form of monotheism adapted to the needs and wishes of the Arabs.

Instead, the tradition is used to throw light on the way later Muslims, those responsible for collecting and composing the accounts which have come down to us, viewed the early history of their religion and culture. The relationship between their views and ‘what really happened’, it is argued, is not really knowable. Instead, the biographies of the Prophet and the accounts of the early history of Islam are analysed for what they can tell us about the aims and intentions, the needs and wishes, of those who compiled them.

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